Affiche van voorstelling 'Daar klopt iets niet' (bruikleen Nederlands Theater Instituut).The Artis Schouwburg (Artis Theatre) put on operettas. From 1894 on, when the theatre became the Hollandsche Schouwburg (Dutch Theatre) the Nederlandse Toneel Vereniging (Netherlands Drama Society) performed there. This company staged plays by the Dutch-Jewish writer Herman Heijermans, including his famous Christmas premières.

The theatre company Hollandsch Toneel performed in the Schouwburg from 1917 on. In the 1930s the area around Amsterdam's Leidseplein became a popular entertainment centre. This, together with the appearance of films and cinemas as a new type of entertainment, led to a fall in numbers for theatre productions. Consequently, the Hollandsche Schouwburg encountered financial difficulties. In 1938 the Schouwburg was taken over and temporarily named Plaza Theatre. In imitation of the American custom, there were two performances each day, taking the form of revues rather than full-fledged theatrical pieces. However, the Plaza Theatre failed to attract sufficient numbers and went bankrupt. A few months later the theatre was once more putting on dramatic   productions, rather than revues. During World War II the German occupiers changed the theatre's name into Joodsche Schouwburg (Jewish Theatre). From then on both performers and audience had to be exclusively Jewish.