Aalten

The first documented presence of Jewish inhabitants in Aalten and Bredevoort dates to the seventeenth century. Until the Napoleonic era, the Jewish community was limited to four families residing in the side streets of Aalten. In 1767, a synagogue was established in a former private residence. Prior to then, religious services were held in a synagogue in a private house in Bredevoort. By 1850, the Jewish population of Aalten and Bredevoort had grown to the point where a new synagogue was needed. This building, located on the Stationsstraat, was formally inaugurated in 1857. The cemetery of the Jewish community of Aalten was located in a wooded area on the Haatsestraat. The cemetery officially became the property of the Jewish community in 1852 but was probably already in use as early as 1820.

In 1900, the Jewish community of Bredevoort was merged into the Aalten community. Community leadership consisted of three members. Community facilities included a religious school with one teacher and a ritual bath. Community organizations included a burial society for men and a women's society providing help to the sick and deceased.

AaltenThe majority of the Jews of Aalten belonged to the middle class and worked as kosher butchers or cattle traders. A building housing a factory belonging to pipe manufacturer Marcus Gans stood on the Haartsestraat until 1917.

During the 1930s, the Jewish population of Aalten increased as refugees arrived from Germany. During the Nazi occupation, the Jews of Aalten, like Jews throughout the Netherlands, were isolated and then deported. The first deportations to the concentration camp at Westerbork took place in 1942. The rest of the Jews of Aalten were forced to leave their homes in 1943. Slightly more than half of the Jews of Aalten survived the war by going into hiding; the rest were deported to the Nazi death camps and murdered.

During the occupation, Aalten offered refuge to both Jews and non-Jews seeking to hide from the Germans. At one point, Aalten hid 2,500 Jews and non-Jews amidst its population of 13,000. Many of those in hiding were assisted with money collected by the members of the local Dutch Reformed Church.

Interior of the synagogue in Aalten, ca. 1993

Two attempts were made during the war to set fire to the synagogue of Aalten. The interior of the building was damaged but the Torah rolls and other ritual objects were saved. The Jewish cemetery of Aalten also was vandalized during the war.
Following restoration during the 1950s and again during the 1980s, the Aalten synagogue was inaugurated anew in 1986. The synagogue now serves both religious and cultural functions. Each year, the small but active Jewish community of Aalten organizes a heavily attended Chanukah service.

In December, 2000, during the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Aalten synagogue, a plaque bearing the names of the Jews of Aalten murdered during the Second World War was unveiled on the wall of the synagogue.
A new Torah scroll, written in Israel by Josef Giat was dedicated in June 2005.


The Jewish population of Aalten:

1809 39
1840 101
1869 63
1930 69
1951 30
1971 31
1998 10

 

  



Collectie en mediatheek

 Dossier  
Dossiers (158) van de Commissie voor Oorlogsschade mbt 155 joodse
gemeentes (Amsterdam en mediene), 1945-1950.
Collectie > Documenten > 00005954

 Album amicorum  1845-1854
Album amicorum van Mina Cohen uit Groningen, 1879-1881.
Collectie > Documenten > 00010708

 [Naamlijst Centraal Israelietisch Weeshuis Utrecht, leden van de commissie van toezicht]  
Naamlijst in gouden letters op zwart bord; ingelijst in houten lijst met gedecoreerde
rand met bloemdecoraties in de hoeken en in het midden.
Collectie > Museumstukken > 06742-03

 [Naamlijst Centraal Israelietisch Weeshuis Utrecht, de leden van de commissie van...  
Naamlijst in gouden letters op zwart bord; ingelijst in houten lijst met gedecoreerde
rand met bloemdecoraties in de hoeken en in het midden.
Collectie > Museumstukken > 06742-02

 Groepsfoto  1910-1920
Leden van het Joods Studentendispuut "Theodoor Herzl", Leiden, circa 1910-1920.
Collectie > Fotos > 40000073

meer treffers in Collectie > Fotos

 [Binnenland] : Amsterdam  1886
Het eerste deel van het "Verslag van de handelingen der Permanente Commissie, van
Juni 1885 tot Juni 1886, aan de Centrale Commissie" behandelt: nieuwe gemeenten ...
Collectie > Joodse pers > 20034427

meer treffers in Collectie > Joodse pers

 Joods leven in Aalten en Bredevoort  1984
Joods leven in Aalten en Bredevoort.
Collectie > Literatuur > 11000137

meer treffers in Collectie > Literatuur

 Ik kom uit de mediene [restmateriaal dl. 2]  
Restmateriaal van de film van Willy Lindwer. Gesprekken met Krammer uit Groningen,
Van Coevorden uit Coevorden, Mendels uit Groenlo, Kropveld-Maas uit Aalten en ...
Collectie > Audiovisueel > 40000106

meer treffers in Collectie > Audiovisueel

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